Document Type : Research Article


1 Master Student in Educational Psychology, Department of Psychology, Rahman Institute of Higher Education, Ramsar, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology Department, Rahman Institute of Higher Education, Ramsar, Iran


Objective: Critical thinking is considered a vital skill for life, especially for learning among students. The current research aims to determine a causal model of the relationship between parent-child interaction and the disposition towards critical thinking, with cognitive flexibility playing an intermediary role.

Method: The design of this research was descriptive-correlational, utilizing structural equation modeling. The study population included male and female middle school students from Lahijan city during the 2023-2024 academic year. A sample of 200 students was selected through convenience sampling. For data collection in this research, the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS), The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI), and the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) were used. The data were then analyzed using Pearson’s correlation test and structural equation modeling, with the help of SPSS 26 and LISREL 10.2 software.

Results: The findings of the research indicated that the proposed model has a good fit. Additionally, parent-child interaction and cognitive flexibility have a direct effect on the disposition towards critical thinking (P > 0.05). Parent-child interaction has a significant and positive indirect effect on the disposition towards critical thinking through cognitive flexibility (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that parent-child interaction and cognitive flexibility can predict critical thinking skills in students. School authorities and parents should pay special attention to these variables.


Main Subjects

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