Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Psychology Department, Hazrat-e Masoume University

2 MSc in Psychology, Islamic Azad University e-Campus - Online University


This research aimed at the prediction of social adjustment based on early maladaptive schemas and social skills. In this research, 133 subjects, all were inhabitants of Tehran and were selected by the convenient method, responded to online questionnaires including Bell Adjustment Questionnaire (BAI), Young Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire (YEMSQ), and Matson Evaluation Social Skill with Youngsters (MESSY). The LISREL and SPSS-22 softwares and the methods of Pearson correlation and Structural equation modeling were used for data analysis. Results showed that early maladaptive schemas in five areas (disconnection & rejection, impaired autonomy & performance, impaired limits, other-direction, and overvigilance/ inhibition) were correlated reversely with social adjustment. Social adjustment also was correlated positively with social skills. Applying the structural equation modeling showed that social adjustment is predictable based on early maladaptive schemas and social skills. Out of the schemas, two areas of impaired limits (-0.69) and impaired autonomy & performance (-0.53) have the most negative impact on social adjustment. Social skills, as the second strongest variable, have the highest positive impact on social skills, after impaired autonomy & performance. The results were explained in the context of the theory of early maladaptive schemas, and some points were suggested regarding an increase in social adjustment.


Main Subjects

Ahi, G, H., Mohammadifar, M. A., Besharat, M. A. (2008). Reliability and Validity of Young's Schema Questionnaire-Short form. Journal of Psychology and Education, 37(3), 5-20.
Amani, R., Etemadi, O., Fatehi Zadeh, M., & Bahrami, F. (2012). The Relationship of Attachment Styles and Social Adjustment. Clinical Psychology and Personality, 10(1), 15-26.  
Atkinson, R., Atkinson, R., Heligard, E.R. (2012). Heligard’s introduction to psychology. Translated by Barahani, M.,, Roshd Pub. (Original work published 2000)
Babzadeh, Z., Mojaver, S., Fati, K., & Jabbari, S. (2022). The effectiveness of self-compassion training on social skills, social self-efficacy and social adjustment of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11(3), 30-44.
Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsyl, Vania Press.
Bell, H. M. (1934). The adjustment inventory: student form. Stanford University: Stanford Univ. Press. 
Biabangard, E. (2006). A Comparison of Social Skills between Blind, Deaf and Normal High School Female Students in Tehran. Journal of Exceptional Children (Research on Exceptional Children). 5(1), 55-68.
Ceyhan, A.A. (2006). An investigation of adjustment levels of Turkish university students with respect to perceived communication skill levels. Social Behavioral and Personality: An international Journal, 34, 367-380.
Cohen, L., Warneke, C., Fouladi, R. T., Rodriguez, M. A., Chaoul-Reich, A. (2004). Psychological adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of the effects of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients with lymphoma. American Cancer Society Journal, 100(10), 2253-2260.
Dhingra. R., Manhas, S., & Thankur, N. (2005). Establishing connectivity of Emotional quotient (EQ), spiritual qouatient with social adjustment: A study of Kashmir migrant woman. Journal Human Ecology, 18(4), 313-317.
Goleman. D., Goodestein, L. D. & Lanyon, R. T. (1995). Adjustment, behavior and personality. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Reading, Mass.
Hassani, F., Alipour, A., Safarinia, M., & Aghayosefi, A. (2021). Comparison of the effectiveness of teaching social skills and cognitive-behavioral play therapy on social adjustment and social acceptance of hyperactive children. Social Cognition, 10(1), 169-186.
Hemaci, Z., Banici, P., Vatan-khah, H. (2016). Predicting Social Adjustment and Life Expectancy from Life Skills Components. Journal of Curriculum Development and Educational Planning Research, 6(1), 74-58.
Kagnici, Y. D. (2012). The Role of multicultural personality in predicting university adjustment of international students in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 34,174-184.
Khodayarifard, M., Rahiminezhad. A., Abedini, Y. (2008). Effective Factors in Social Adjustment of Shahed and Non-Shahed College Students. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities of Shiraz University, 26(3), 25-42.  
Matson, J. L., Rotatori, A. F., Helset, W. J. (1983). Developing of rating scale to measure social skills in children; The Matson evaluation of social skills with Youngers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 21(4), 335-340.
Mazaheri, A., Baghban, I., Fatehzadeh, M. (2007). Effects of Self Esteem Group Training on Students' Social Adjustment. Daneshvar Raftar, 13(16), 49-56.
Mikaeili Mani, F., Madadi Emamzadeh, Z. (2008). Study of relationship between emotional-social intelligence with social adjustment among students with disciplinary commandment and their comparison students without it in Urumia University. Journal of Psychology, 3(11), 99-121.
Nasirian, F., Fath Abadi, J., & Zarani, F. (2022). Relationship between early maladaptive schemas and school adaptation: The mediating role of psychological capital. Political Sociology of Iran, 5(7), 1231-1246.
Rafiee, S., Hatami, A., & Foroghi, A. (2011). The relationship between early maladaptive schemas and attachment in women with extramarital sex. Quarterly Journal of Women and Society, 2(5), 21-36.
Rahimnia, M., Rasulian, M. (2006). Comparison of Coping Mechanisms of Adolescents Inhabiting “Tehran Correction and Rehabilitation Center” and High School Students. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology; 12 (1), 29-35.
Rostami, S., Ahmadnia, S. (2012). Determination of Components Sharing of Perceived Social Support and Parents Socio-Economic Status in Predicting Social Adjustment of Girl Students in High Schools of Javanrood City in 89 – 90. Social Research, 4(11), 129-147.
Saeediyān, F., & Nili, M. (2011). A Study on the Effect of Assertiveness Training on Social Adjustment and Positive Self-Concept for Head-of-Household Women. Clinical Psychology Studies, 2(5), 91-115.  
Schmidt, N. B., Joiner, T. E., Young, J. E., & Telch, M. J. (1995). The Schema Questionnaire: Investigation of Psychometric Properties and the Hierarchical Structure of a Measure of Maladaptive Schemata. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 295-321.
Seyfizadeh, H., Zareei Mahmodabadi, H., & Bakhshayesh, A. R. (2019). The relationship between early maladaptive schemas and marital adjustment with mediation fear of intimacy in married people. Journal of Family Research, 15(4), 467-486.    
Shamsi, F., & Amirianzadeh, M. (2017). The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy for Personality Traits and Social Skills. Psychological Methods and Models, 8(27), 1-14.
Yoosofnejad Shirvani, M., Peyvastegar, M. (2017). The relationship between life satisfaction and early maladaptive schemas in university students. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 12(44), 55-65.
Young, J. E. (2005). Young schema questionnaire-short form. New York: Schema Therapy Institute.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J., Weishaar, M. E. (2022). Schema Therapy: A Practitioner’s Guide. Translated by Hamidpour, H and Andouz, Z, Arjmand Pub. (Original work published 2006)