Document Type : Research Article


1 M. A. in General Psychology, Rahman Institute of Higher Education

2 Assistant Professor, Psychology Department, Rahman Institute of Higher Education

3 University Lecturer, Psychology Department, Rahman Institute of Higher Education


People with gender dysphoria experience some mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. The present study aimed to compare body image and depressive symptoms in people with gender dysphoria and the non-affected. This research was applied in terms of purpose and casual-comparative in terms of methodology. The statistical population of the study included two groups of people with gender dysphoria approved by the Iranian legal medicine organization in 1400 and non-affected people with gender dysphoria. For sampling, 30 people from both groups (15 males and 15 females) were selected by the convenience sampling method. A Multidimensional Body–Self Relations Questionnaire (BSRQ) and The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were employed to gather research data. Data analysis was performed by Independent Sample T-Test using SPSS-20 software. The findings of the study indicated that the mean scores of body image (P˂0.01) and depressive symptoms (P˂0.05) were significantly different in people with gender dysphoria and the non-affected people. People with gender dysphoria had a more negative body image and more depressive symptoms than non-affected people. 


Main Subjects

Aabdolpour, G., Hashemi, T., Shairi, M., R., Alizadeh, F. (2018). The relationship of the Intolerance of uncertainty and worry and metacognitive beliefs in people with depressive symptoms. Shenakht Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 5 (2) ,15-26. 
Afsharian, M., Mahmoodi, H., Ghanbari, H. R. (2019). Assessing the level of anxiety and depression in trans people and comparing it with the normal population. 1st International Conference Interdisciplinary Studies in Management and Engineering. University of Tehran.
Ahmadpour torki, Z., Abolghasemi, A., Poorsoheili, S. (2018). Comparison of mood dimensions and physical body image concern in depressed women with and without sexual dysfunction. Women's Studies Sociological and Psychological, 15(4), 123-148.
Barghi Irani, Z., Goshtasbi Asl, S., Goshtasbi Asl, S. (2015). A Comparative Study of Defense Styles and Mechanisms of Gender Dysphoric Patients with Normal People. Journal of Personality & Individual Differences, 4(3), 139-156.  
Catelan, R. F., Saadeh, A., Lobato, M. I. R., Gagliotti, D. A. M., Nardi, H. C., & Costa, A. B. (2022). Depression, Self-Esteem, and Resilience and its Relationship with Psychological Features of Sexuality among Transgender Men and Women from Brazil. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1-10.
Ceruti, C.; D’Agata, F.; Sibona, M.; Preto, M.; Gualerzi, A.; Crespi, C.; Molo, ZM. T. (2020). P-01-4 a new tool to explore brain functional basis of gender disphoria: Validation of a functional MRI protocol to investigate patterns of brain activation related to body image and gender identity. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 17(6), 171.
Corda, E., Bandecchi, C., Deiana, V., Pintore, S., Pinna, F., Pusceddu, R., ... & Carpiniello, B. (2016). Body image and gender role perceived in gender dysphoria: cross-sex hormone therapy effects. European Psychiatry, 33(S1), S589-S589.
Delavar, A. (2007).  Educational and psychological Research. Tehtran: Virayesh. 
Dhejne, C., Van Vlerken, R., Heylens, G., & Arcelus, J. (2016). Mental health and gender dysphoria: A review of the literature. International review of psychiatry, 28(1), 44-57.
Ghazanfari, F., & Khodarahimi, S. Poorkord, M., Karami, A. (2018). Gender Dysphoria Disorder: Diagnosis, Theory and Intervention. Rooyesh-e-Ravanshenasi Journal, 6(4), 9-28.
Hepp, U., Kraemer, B., Schnyder, U., Miller, N., & Delsignore, A. (2005). Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. Journal of psychosomatic research, 58(3), 259-261.
Jenabi Ghods, M., Rahgoi, A., Fallahi-Khoshknab, M., Nourozi, M. (2020). The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Depression, Stress, Anxiety of Male to Female Transsexuals. Iranian Journal of Rehabilitation Research in Nursing, 7 (1), 1-10.
Malmquist, A., Wikström, J., Jonsson, L., & Nieminen, K. (2021). How norms concerning maternity, femininity and cisgender increase stress among lesbians, bisexual women and transgender people with a fear of childbirth. Midwifery93, 102888.
Mantashloo, S., & Shairi, M., Heydarinasab, l., Izadi Dehnavi, S. (2016). Comparison of depression, Anxiety and Body Image in Patients with Gender Dysphoric Disorder and Non Patients. Journal of Health Breeze (Family Health), 4(3), 42-50.
Mantashloo, S., Shairi, M., Heydarinasab, L. (2018). The effect of preconditioning with high intensity interval training on cardioprotection and left ventricular function against Ischemia-reperfusion injury in male rats. Daneshvar Medicine, 26(2), 27-38.
Mazaheri Meybodi, A., Hajebi, A., & Ghanbari Jolfaei, A. (2014). Psychiatric axis I comorbidities among patients with gender dysphoria. Psychiatry journal, 2014(971814).
McGuire, J. K.; Doty, J. L.; Catalpa, J. M. & Ola, C. (2016). Body image in transgender young people: Findings from a qualitative, community based study. Body Image, 18: 96-107.
Murphy, J.; Prentice, F.; Walsh, R.; Catmur, C. & Bird, G. (2020). Autism and transgender identity: Implications for depression and anxiety. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 69, 101466. : 1-11.
Noroozi, F., Ghorban Shiroodi, S., Khalaj, A. R. (2021). Effectiveness of Compassion-Focused Therapy on Self-Control and Flexibility of Body Image in Obese Patients Volunteering for Sleeve and Gastric Bypass Surgery. Journal of Research in Behavioral Sciences, 18(4), 493-502.
Owen-Smith, A. A.; Gerth, J.; Sineath, R. C.; Barzilay, J.; Becerra-Culqui, T.; Getahun, D.; Goodman, M. (2018). Association between gender confirmation treatments and perceived gender congruence, body image satisfaction, and mental health in a cohort of transgender individuals. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 15(4): 591-600.
Pourkazem, F., Eshghi Nogourani, R. (2018). The Effectiveness of Treatment Based on Acceptance and Commitment to Improving Psychological Well-Being of Transsexual Individuals Esfahan. Shenakht Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 5 (1), 29-41.
Rahimi Ahmadabadi S, Hejazi A, Attaran H, Rahimi A, Kohestani L, Karashki H et al (2016). Comparison of Stress, Anxiety, Depression & Sexual Role in Subjects Involved Gender Dysphoria with Normal Subjects. Iran Journal of Forensic Medicine, 22 (1), 67-75.
Rahimi Ahmadabadi, S., Kalantari, M., Abedi, M., & Modarres Gharavi, S. M. (2020). Investigating Parent-Child Relationship in Predicting Gender Dysphoria in Transsexual Women and Men. Journal of Psychology, 2(94), 200-214.
Romito, M.; Salk, R. H.; Roberts, S.; Thoma, B. C.; Levine, M. D.; Choukas-Bradley, S. (2021). Exploring transgender adolescents’ body image concerns and disordered eating: Semi-structured interviews with nine gender minority youth. Body Image, 37: 50-62.
Shairi, M., Mantashloo, S., Heydarinasab, L. (2019). An pathology approach in the realm of culture and family: differentiating the projections of people with gender dysphoria disorder in the Rorschach test. Family Counseling and Psychotherapy, 9(1), 1-14.
Strubel, J.; Sabik, N. J. & Tylka, T. L. (2020). Body image and depressive symptoms among transgender and cisgender adults: Examining a model integrating the tripartite influence model and objectification theory. Body Image, 35, 53-62.