Document Type : Research Article


1 Visiting Scholar, Indiana University, School of Public Health, Department of Kinesiology, USA

2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Physical Education, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 M. Sc., Department of Physical Education, Learning and Motor Control, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

4 Ph.D. in Pysical Education, Department of Physical Education, Farhangian University, Gorgan, Iran


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of autonomy support (i.e., in the form of self-controlled feedback) on learning and self-efficacy in a throwing skill in adolescents with ADHD. The subjects were 40 adolescents with ADHD (14 to 17 years old) and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: self-controlled and yoked. Motor task consisted of throwing bean bags with the non-dominant arm at a target on the ground. The participants completed the pretest (10 trials), an acquisition phase including 6 blocks of 10 trials, and a retention test consisting of 10 trials. The participants in the self-controlled group received knowledge of result (KR) anytime the requested. The yoked group was matched with self-controlled group, but without having a choice to request for feedback. Prior to pretest, each block, and before the retention test, all participants completed the self-efficacy scale. Dependent measures were throwing accuracy scores and self-efficacy. Independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to analyze the data. The results showed that participants in the self-controlled group had significantly higher throwing accuracy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test than those in yoked group. Moreover, participants in the self-controlled group reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test than those in yoked group. The results of this study show that people with ADHD benefit from autonomy support to learn a novel motor skill.


Main Subjects

Abdoshahi, M., Gholami A., Naeimikia, M. (2022). Relationships between Autonomy Support with Intrinsic Motivation, Anxiety, and Intention to Physical Activity in Children. International Journal of Pediatrics, 10(3), 15623-15629.
Afsanepurak, S.A., Bahram, A., Dana, A., Abdi. J. (2012). The Effect of Self-talk and Mental Imagery on Self-efficacy in Throwing Darts in Adolescents. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 3 (3), 594-600.
Baniasadi, T., Namazizadeh, M., Sheikh, M. (2018). Attentional focus can affect sway in postural and supra-postural tasks in community-welling older adults. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 6(3), 31-37. https://10.29252/aassjournal.6.3.31
Baniasadi, T., Namazi Zadeh, M., Sheikh, M. (2019). The effects of balance training and focus of attention on sway in postural and supra-postural tasks in the elderly population. Motor Behavior, 11(36), 89-104.
Baniasadi, T., Soltan Ahmadi, T., Khajeaflaton Mofrad, S., ShafaeianFard, F. (2022). The Effect of Observing Video and Point-Light Models on Learning a Basketball Shot in Adolescents with Autism. Journal of Humanities Insights, 6(1), 42-46.
Baniasadi, T., Soltan Ahmadi, T., Khajeaflaton Mofrad, S., ShafaeianFard, F. (2022). The Effect of Instructional and Motivational Self-Talk on Learning a Basketball Shot in Adolescents with Autism. Journal of Humanities Insights, 6(1), 47-51.
Chiviacowsky, S. (2014). Self-controlled practice: Autonomy protects perceptions of competence and enhances motor learning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 505-510.
Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2002). Self-controlled feedback: Does it enhance learning because performers get feedback when they need it? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 408-415. https://10.1080/02701367.2002.10609040
Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2007). Feedback after good trials enhances learning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78, 40-47. https://10.1080/02701367.2007.10599402
Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., Laroque de Medeiros, F., Kaef er, A., & Tani, G. (2008). Learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results in 10-year-old children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79, 405-410.
Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., Wally, R., & Borges, T. (2009). KR after good trials enhances learning in older adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 663-668.
Eskandarnejad, M.,  Mobayen, F.,  Dana, A. (2015). The effect of basketball training on ADHD children's learning skills. Research Journal of Sport Sciences, 3(6), 163-167.
Dana, A., Hamzeh Sabzi, A., and Gozalzadeh, A. (2017). The Structural Relationships of Coaching Efficacy, Players' Self-Efficacy, and Collective Efficacy in Female Professional Basketball Teams. Journal of Sport Psychology Studies, 5(18), 111-128.
Dana, A., Rafiee, S., Soltan Ahmadi, T., Sabzi, A. (2018). The Effect of Education Based on the Developmental Physical Education on Students’ Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Motor Behavior, 10(32), 17-34.
Farhangnia, S., Hassanzadeh, R., Ghorbani, S. (2020). Handwriting Performance of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Role of Visual-Motor Integration. International Journal of Pediatrics, 8(11), 12317-12326. https://10.22038/ijp.2020.47633.3857
Ghorbani, S., & Bund, A. (2014). Acquisition a Baseball-pitch by observation: Which information is extracted? American Journal of Sport Science & Medicine, 2(6A), 18-21.
Ghorbani, S., & Bund, A. (2020). Motivational effects of enhanced expectancies for motor learning in individuals with high and low self-efficacy. Perceptual & Motor Skills. 127(1), 263-274.
Ghorbani, S., Dana, A., & Christodoulides, E. (2020). Effects of external focus of attention on learning static balance among girls with ADHD. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 12(1), 69-74.
Ghorbani, S., Ghanati, P., Dana, A., Salehian, M. (2020). The Effects of Autonomy Support on Observational Motor Learning. Iranian Journal of Learning & Memory, 3(11), 77-87.
Kordi, H., Sohrabi, M., Saberi Kakhki, A., Attarzadeh, H., S. Gholami, A. (2017). The Effect of Frequency of Verbal Feedback on Motor Performance and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder, The Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine,7(69).
Mokhtari, P., Shojaei, M., & Dana, A. (2007). The effect of observational practice on the Badminton volley service learning: The role of self-efficacy. Harakat, 32, 117-131.
Wulf, G., Chiviacowsky, S., & Cardozo, P. (2014). Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning. Human Movement Science, 37, 12-20. https://10.1016/j.humov.2014.06.004
Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2016). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychonomic  Bulletin & Review, 23, 1382-1414.
Wulf, G., Lewthwaite, R., Cardozo, P., & Chiviacowsky, S. (2017). Triple play: Additive contributions of enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and external attentional focus to motor learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 824-834.