The Effect of Positive Social-Comparative Feedback on Learning a Throwing Skill in Adolescents with ADHD

Document Type : Research Article


1 Visiting Scholar, Indiana University, School of Public Health, Department of Kinesiology, USA

2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Physical Education, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 M.Sc., Department of Physical Education, Learning and Motor Control, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

4 Ph. D. in Psysical Education, Department of Physical Education, Farhangian University, Gorgan, Iran.



The present study was designed to investigate the effects of positive social-comparative feedback on motor learning and self-efficacy of a throwing motor skill in individuals with ADHD. The subjects were 44 adolescents with ADHD in the age range of 15 to 18 years old and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: positive social-comparative feedback and control group. Motor task consisted of throwing bean bags with the non-dominant arm at a target on the ground. The participants completed the pretest (10 trials), an acquisition phase including 6 blocks of 10 trials, and a retention test consisting of 10 trials. The participants in the positive social comparison feedback group were informed that their throws on the previous block were, on average, better than the throws of the other participants in this group. Prior to pretest, each block, and before the retention test, all participants completed the self-efficacy scale. Dependent measures were throwing accuracy scores and self-efficacy. Independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were employed to analyze the data. Positive social comparison feedback group throwed the bean bags significantly better in the acquisition phase and the retention test compared to the control group. In addition, positive social comparison feedback group reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test in comparison to the control group. Our findings indicated that enhanced expectancies benefited individuals with ADHD to enhance their performance and learn a novel motor skill


Main Subjects

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  • Receive Date: 13 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 26 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 14 January 2022
  • First Publish Date: 28 February 2022