Predicting Students' Psychological Well-being Based on the Components of Spiritual Intelligence and Sense of Coherence

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran

2 M.A. in Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Bilesvar Branch

Abstract

Psychological well-being, meaning cognitive and emotional evaluations of one's life, which is one of the components of positive psychology, is of particular importance in students' behavior today. Therefore, recognizing the factors affecting it plays a crucial role in enhancing students 'psychological well-being. The present study aims at predicting students' psychological well-being based on the components of spiritual intelligence and a sense of coherence. The present study is applied as well as descriptive/correlational research in terms of purpose and in terms of the nature and method respectively. Based on the Morgan Table, a sample of 248 of Bilesavar Moghan Azad University students in the academic year 2019-2020 is randomly selected. Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24) and Psychological Well-being Questionnaire are employed for data collection. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression are used for analysis data. The results show that there is a significant and positive relationship between spiritual intelligence as well as sense of coherence and students' psychological well-being; this means that whenever spiritual intelligence as well as sense of coherence increase, there is also improvement in psychological well-being. Spiritual intelligence can be a good predictor of psychological well-being and mental health. The spiritual tendency in life prevents a person from doing wrong and showing unacceptable behavior; it can ensure person’s mental health. 

Keywords

Main Subjects


Abdollahzade H. Bagherpour M. Boujmehrani S. Lotfi M. (2009). Spiritual intelligence. 1 rd ed.Tehran: psychometric Publication.
 
Antonovsky, A. (1993). The structure and properties of the Sense of Coherence Scale. Social Science & Medicine, 36(6), 725-733. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(93)90033-Z
 
Ameri, M., Khajvand Khoshli, A. (2015). Examination of the relationship between spiritual intelligence and psychological well-being and happiness of students. The first International Congress on Education and psychology with an Islamic approach. https://civilica.com/doc/515487/
 
Ashkani, F., Heydari, H. (2014). Effects of emotional adjustment on psychological welfare and attributional styles of students with learning disabilities in primary school. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 4(1), 6-22. http://jld.uma.ac.ir/article_214.html?lang=en
 
Askary, M., Asgary, P., Sangani, A. (2019). Relationship of Spiritual Intelligence, Perceived Stress and Flexibility of Action with Psychological Well-being in the Elderly. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry Nursing, 7 (3), 15-21. http://ijpn.ir/article-1-1263-en.html
 
Behrozi, N., Kamranifar, M., Marouti, Z. (2018). The simple and multiple relationship between emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence and resilience with psychological well-being in female high school students in Behbahan Twelfth International Conference on Psychology and Social Sciences, Inc. Hmayshgran October illumination, Tehran. https://civilica.com/doc/826999/
 
De Caroli, M. E., Sagone, E. (2016). Resilience and psychological well-being: differences for affective profiles in Italian middle and late adolescents, International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology.  vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 149-159, 2016 https://doi.org/10.17060/ijodaep.2016.n1.v1.237
 
Delqhandi, A. (2016). The effectiveness of spiritual intelligence training on psychological well-being and academic achievement of high school sadra students covered by Imam Relief Foundation. The second national conference on new research in the field of humanities and social studies. https://civilica.com/doc/534930/
 
Downie, R. S., Fyfe, C. E. and Tannahill, A. J. (1990). Health Promotion—Models and Values. Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford University Press, Oxford. https://www.amazon.com/Health-Promotion-Models-Medical-Publications/dp/0192625918
 
Emmons, R., A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concern: Motivation and spirituality in personality. New York. The Guilford Press. https://www.amazon.com/Psychology-Ultimate-Concerns-Spirituality-Personality/dp/1572309350
 
Hajilari, F. (2017). The Investigation of the relationship between emotion regulation and spiritual intelligence and psychological well-being of the students, The third international conference management, psychology, and social sciences, Tehran. http://irindexing.ir/editor/fileman/Uploads/folder/nmps2/47.pdf
 
Jalali, N., Khosh Mardan, A. (2018). The examination of the relationship between spiritual intelligence and subjective well-being of the students, the Second International Congress and Conference empowerment of society in the field of humanities and cultural studies, cultural and social skills Empowerment Center, Tehran. https://civilica.com/doc/772257/
 
King, D. B. (2008). Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition, model, and measure (Unpublished master's thesis). Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. ProQuest.‏
 
Macdonald, J. J. (2002). Spiritual Health in older men. Proceeding of the 1th on Seminar Older men and Community: Feb 21 Torento, Canada.
 
Martínez B., B. Custódio, R., P. (2014). Relationship between mental health and spiritual wellbeing among hemodialysis patients: a correlation study. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 132(1), 23-7. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-3180.2014.1321606 
 
Nasel, D. D. (2004). Spiritual orientation in relation to spiritual intelligence a consideration of traditional Christianity and New Age individualistic Spirituality. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Australia).  https://www.scirp.org/(S(351jmbntvnsjt1aadkposzje))/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=1290369
 
Nilsson, K. W., Leppert, J., Simonsson, B., Starrin, B. (2010). Sense of coherence and psychological well-being: improvement with age. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 64(4), 347-352. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2008.081174  
 
Nosrati, F., Rahimi-Nejad, A., Ghayoomi Naeeni, A. (2018). The relationship between parental attachment, spiritual intelligence and gender with psychological well-being in gifted students. Journal of School Psychology, 6(4), 176-198. http://jsp.uma.ac.ir/article_609.html?lang=en
 
Rajaei, A. (2010). Spiritual Intelligence: Perspectives and challenges. Educational researches, 5(22), 1-28. https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=188827
 
Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current directions in psychological science, 4(4), 99-104. https://doi.org/10.1111%2F1467-8721.ep10772395
 
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719–727. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.4.719
 
Ryff, C. D., Singer, B., Love, G. D., & Essex, M. J. (1998). Resilience in adulthood and later life: Defining features and dynamic processes. In J. Lomranz (Ed.), Handbook of aging and mental health: An integrative approach (pp. 69–96). Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0098-2_4
 
Sabzi, Z., Mancheri, H., Royani, Z., Aryaie, M., Jafari, S., Ahmadi, G. (2015). Subjective well-being in nursing and midwifery students of Golestan University of medical sciences. Journal of Research Development in Nursing and Midwifery, 12(1), 76- 84. URL: http://nmj.goums.ac.ir/article-1-709-en.html
 
Shojaei, A., Soleymani, E. (2015). The effectiveness of spiritual intelligence training on psychological well-being of students covered by the imam khomeini relief committee. Journal of School Psychology, 4(1), 104-121. http://jsp.uma.ac.ir/article_288.html?lang=fa
 
Sotoodeh, H., Shakerinia, I., Kheyrati, M., Dargahi, S., Ghasemi Jobaneh, R. (2016). Surveying the relationship between spiritual and moral intelligence and the psychological well-being of nurses. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 9 (1), 63-73. http://ijme.tums.ac.ir/article-1-5703-en.html
 
Vastamaki, J. (2009). Sense of coherence and Unemployment. Academic Dissertation. University of Erlangen- Nuremberg and University of Kuopio. Faculty of social Sciences. http://www.oppi.uef.fi/uku/vaitokset/vaitokset/2009/isbn000-000-00-0000-0.pdf
 
Yazdani Ahmadabadi, B. (2017). The role of the sense of coherence in predicting life satisfaction of students, Third International Conference on Research in Human Sciences, Tehran, Iran. https://civilica.com/doc/757245/
  • Receive Date: 12 April 2021
  • Revise Date: 08 July 2021
  • Accept Date: 01 August 2021
  • First Publish Date: 23 August 2021