Comparison of the Effectiveness of Brief Self-Regulation Couple Therapy and Spirituality Therapy on Social Perspective Taking Mothers with Intellectually Disabled Children

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Psychology Department, Basir Kosar Institute of Higher Education, Abyek, Qazvin, Iran

2 Ph.D. in General Psychology, Speech Therapist, Exceptional Education, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. in Health Psychology, University Lecturer, Rahman Institute of Higher Education ,Ramsar, Iran

Abstract

An intellectually disabled child has some negative effects on parents' mental health. Social Perspective-taking is one of the variables that affects mothers of intellectually disabled children. The present study aims to compare the effectiveness of Brief Self-Regulation Couple Therapy and spiritual therapy on the social perspective-taking of mothers with the intellectually disabled children. This was an experimental study with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population consisted of all mothers with intellectually disabled students in Tehran 14th district, selected by simple random sampling and w divided into three Brief Self-Regulation Couple Therapy (n = 10), spirituality therapy (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups.The data collection tool was Mohagheghi et al.’s Social Perspective-Taking Scale (2016). The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of covariance and SPSS-24 statistical software. Analyzing the data showed that both methods of Brief Self-Regulation Couple Therapy and spiritual therapy, affect the social Perspective-taking of mothers with intellectually disabled children. In addition, the results of comparing the two methods showeded that spirituality therapy is more effective than Brief Self-Regulation Couple Therapy on the social Perspective-taking of mothers with intellectually disabled children. Regarding the effectiveness of Brief Self-Regulation Couple Therapy, both methods can be used to improve Mothers' social Perspective-taking with intellectually disabled children.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Abbasi, H., Karimi, B., Jafari, D. (2017). The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Frustration Tolerance and Dysfunctional Attitudes of Mothers of Students with Intellectual Disabilities. Psychology of Exceptional Individuals, 6(24), 81-108. [DOI: 10.22054/jpe.2017.20384.1522]
 
Aberson, C. (2007). Contact, Perspective Taking, and Anxiety as Predictors of Stereotype Endorsement, Explicit Attitudes, and Implicit Attitudes. Journal of group processes Intergroup Relations, 10(2):179-201. [DOI: 10.1177/1368430207074726]
 
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th Ed). Washington, DC: Author. https://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/book/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
 
Bhatia, M., Bhatia, S., Gautam, P., Saha, R., & Kaur, J. (2015). Burden assessment, Psychiatric morbidity and their correlates in caregivers of patients with intellectuall disabled.  East Asian Archives of Psychiatry, 25(4), 159-163. https://easap.asia/index.php/find-issues/past-issue/item/283-1504-v25n4-p159
Falah, M. H., Mangali, A., & Zare, F. (2012). Investigating the effect of teaching Islamic coping style on increasing the happiness of parents of exceptional children. Yazd School  of Health Quarterly (TolooeBehdasht), 11(2),75-82. https://tbj.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-184-fa.htmllhttps://easap.asia/index.php
 
Firouzi, R., Khan Mohammadi, A., & Homayouni, A. (2015). Evaluation of the effectiveness of Lazarus multi-dimensional treatment on anxiety, depression and life expectancy of mothers with mentally retarded students in exceptional primary schools in Amol in the academic year 2014-2015. Master Thesis. Islamic Azad University, Ayatollah Amoli Branch.
 
Flavell, J. H. (2004). Theory-of-mind development: Retrospect and prospect. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 274-290. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23096166 https://easap.asia/index.php
 
Ganji, M. (2013). Psychopathology based on DSM - 5. Volume 2, First Edition. Tehran: Savalan Publishing.
 
Ghadmpour, E., Qasemzadeh, Fa; Zolfaghari, Shadi., & Padarvand, H. (2020). The effectiveness of group positive thinking on the tolerance of anxiety and social adjustment of mothers with mentally retarded children. Quarterly Journal of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedical, 6 (2), 11-21. http://sjnmp.muk.ac.ir/article-1-327-fa.html
 
Halford, K., Wilson, K., Lizzio, A., & Moore, E. (2008). Does working at a relationship work relationship self-regulation and relationship outcomes. Australian Research Council Grant entitled Chapter Eighteen, 1, 1-10. http://hdl.handle.net/10072/783
 
Halford, W. K. (2003). Brief couple therapy for couples Helping Partners Help Themselves. New York: Guilford publication. https://www.guilford.com/books/Brief-Therapy-for-Couples/W-Kim-Halford/9781572309715/reviews
 
Halford, W. K., Markman, H. J., Kling, G. H., & Stanley, S. M. (2003). Best practice in couple relationship education. Journal of marital and family therapy, 29(3), 385-406. [doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2003.tb01214.x]
 
Hassani, A., Alizadeh, H., GhobariBonab, B., Pezeshk, Sh., & Kazemi, F. (2020). Develop a group education program to promote spirituality and study its psychological consequences for mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Psychological Sciences, 19 (88), 463- 473. http://psychologicalscience.ir/article-1-527-en.html
 
Karney, B. R., &Gauer, B. (2010). Cognitive Complexity and Marital Interaction in Newlyweds. Personal Relationships, 17, 181-200. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01271.x]
 
Kim, E., Halford, R., Matthew, R., Sanders, H., Brett, C., & Behrens, H. (1994). self-regulation in behavioral couples' therapy. Behavior Therapy, 25(3), 431-452. [DOI:10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80156-X]
 
Kimura, M., & Yamazaki, Y. (2016). Mental health and positive change among Japanese mothers of children with intellectual disabilities: Roles of sense of coherence and social capital. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 59, 43-54. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2016.07.009]
 
Lotfi Kashani, F., Mofid, B., SarafrazMehr, S. (2013). The effectiveness of spiritual therapy on reducing anxiety, depression and distress in women with breast cancer. Journal of Thought and Behavior, 7(27), 27-37. https://jtbcp.riau.ac.ir/article_12.html?lang=en
 
Lucchese, F. A., & Koenig, H. G. (2013). Religion, spirituality and cardiovascular disease: research, clinical implications, and opportunities in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, 28(1), 103-128.  [DOI: 10.5935/1678-9741.20130015]
 
Mann, C. (2010). In a stronger’s Shoes: Reducing mental illness stigma thought perspective-taking. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Tennessee. https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/823
 
Meppelder, M., Hodes, M., Kef, S., & Schuengel, C. (2015). Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources. Journal of Intellectually disabled Research, 59(7), 664-677.  [DOI: 10.1111/jir.12170]
 
Mirahmadi, S. L., Ahmadi, S. A., & Bahrami, F. (2012). Effect of self –regulatory couple therapy on couple's happiness and mental health. New Findings in Psychology, 7(22), 33-43. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=256371
 
Mohagheghi, H., ZoghiPaydar, M. R., Yaqubi, A., YarmohammadiVasel, M., & Mohammadzadeh, S. (2016). Develop and validation a scale to social perspective taking. Bi-Quarterly Journal of Social Cognition, 5(1), 20-34. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=549349
 
Nosrati, F., Jafari-Ardi, S., & Ghobari-Bonab, B. (2020). Effectiveness of Self-monitoring Training by Islamic Contemplation Approach on Self-restraint among Female Students of Tehran University. Journal of Pizhūhishdardīnvasalāmat., 6(2): 20-36. https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/en-jrrh/article/view/30880
 
Nowruzi, S., Nazari, A. M., Rasooli, M., Davarnia, R., & BabaeiGarmkhani, M. (2015). The effectiveness of Brief self-regulation couple therapy on reducing marital stress in couples. Knowledge Horizon Quarterly, 21(1), 1-6. http://hms.gmu.ac.ir/article-1-     2101-fa.html
 
Pandya S. P. (2020) Examining the Effectiveness of WhatsApp-Based Spiritual Posts on Mitigating Stress and Building Resilience, Maternal Confidence and Self-efficacy Among Mothers of Children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(5):1479-1495. [DOI: 10.1007/s10803-020-04633-x.]
 
Qahramani, N., & Nadi, MA. (2012). The relationship between religious-spiritual components with mental health and hope for the future in the staff of Shiraz public hospitals. Iranian Journal of Nursing, 25(79), 1-11. http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-1418-en.html
 
Rathore, S., & Mathur, R. (2015). Spirituality and Social Support: Source of Coping in Mothers of Children with Intellectually disabled. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 10(2), 337 -346. .https://www.proquest.com/openview/f0e0030e46ee345cb6e9950f7c130dd1/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=506336
 
Rezaian, H., Hosseinian, S., & AsnaAshari, M. (2014). Comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral methods against mood induction methods on the creation of mothers of mentally retarded children. Psychological Studies, 10(4), 33-53. https://civilica.com/doc/894441/
 
SaeediTaheri, Z., Asadzandi, M., & Ebadi, A. (2013). The effect of healthy heart model-based care on the spiritual experience of patients with coronary artery disease. Nursing Psychiatry, 1(3), 53-45.  http://ijpn.ir/article-1-125-fa.html
 
Slana, M., MolnarovaLetovancova, K., Dobrikova, P., & Hromkova, M. (2020). Research into the need of families who have children with Down syndrome (in the Slovak framework). Journal of Nursing and Social Sciences Related to Health and Illness, 60-67. http://kont.zsf.jcu.cz/pdfs/knt/2020/01/10.pdf 
 
Wade, C., Llewellyn, G., & Matthews, J. (2015).Parent mental health as a mediator of     contextual effects on parents with intellectual disabilities and their children. Clinical Psychologist, 19(1), 28-38. [DOI: 10.1111/cp.12055]
 
Wilson, K. L., Charker, J., Lizzio, A., Halfird, K., & Kimlin, S. (2005). Assessing how much couples work at their relationship: The behavioral self–regulation for effective relationship scale. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(3), 385-393. [DOI: 10.1037/0893-3200.19.3.385]
 
Wood, S & Bhatnagar, S. (2015). Resilience to the effects of social stress: Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies on the role of coping strategies. Neurobiology of Stress, 1(4), 164-173. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ynstr.2014.11.002]
 
Yaqubi, A., & Mohammadzadeh, S. (2016). Construction and validation of the educational of protocol of social perspective-taking and analyzes of its efficacy on couple's conflict resolutions styles. Journal of Counseling Culture and Psychotherapy, 7 (28), 103-131. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=606343